Carbon Sinks and Sources

CGER is conducting various projects on determination of carbon dioxide sinks, and estimation of carbon fluxes.

Data based estimate of global ocean CO2 flux for 1980-2020
This product extends the flux estimate of “Global surface ocean CO2 concentration and uptake estimated using a neural network (doi:10.17595/20201020.001)” to 1980-2020 using the grided data of CO2 observations of SOCAT 2021. We made two small changes in the input variables for training a neural network: (1) the log scaled mixed layer depth was used and (2) observed CO2 values over 1000 µatm were excluded.
Output data of greenhouse gas budget and carbon cycle simulated by the VISIT terrestrial ecosystem model
This dataset contains a set of simulation output by a terrestrial ecosystem model, the Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The simulation was conducted globally for the historical period from 1901 to 2020, using an observation-based climate data and land-use data.
Fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates at 1x1 km in Tokyo
The product includes annual total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from point, line, and area sources at 1x1 km spatial resolution in Tokyo in 2014. The emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach with detailed activity data including the operating ratios of power plants, load factors of vessels, fossil-carbon contents of waste, emission factors for fossil-fueled power generation, aircraft movements, navigation, and combustion processes.
Global 1km Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Dataset
This dataset (ODIAC CO2 emission dataset) indicates global distributions of man-made CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel (coal, oil and gas) combustion at 1x1km spatial resolution. The emission spatial distributions are estimated using an emission model that utilizes information from a power plant database and satellite-observed nighttime lights. The emission estimates are updated on annual basis using the latest fuel statistical data. In addition to the dataset in the native 1x1km resolution (in binary format), the 1x1 degree resolution version of the dataset (in netCDF) is also available.
Long-term global CO2 fluxes estimated by NICAM-based Inverse Simulation for Monitoring CO2
This dataset contains global CO2 fluxes estimated by NICAM-based Inverse Simulation for Monitoring CO2 (NISMON-CO2). Spatiotemporal variations of the CO2 fluxes at the Earth's surface are constrained by observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions. The analyzed (posterior) fluxes are derived by an optimization calculation of the four-dimensional variational method coupled with the atmospheric transport model NICAM-TM. The analysis period is set long-term so that one can investigate not only the seasonal cycles but also the interannual variations of CO2 fluxes.
Global surface ocean CO2 concentration and uptake estimated using a neural network
This dataset includes monthly distribution of CO2 fugacity and ocean-atmosphere CO2 flux in 1x1 degree grids after 1985 estimated using a neural network.
A Data-driven Upscale Product of Global GPP, NEE and ER
The product includes 10-day means of global GPP (gross primary production), NEE (net ecosystem exchange), and ER (ecosystem respiration) in 0.1x0.1 degree spatial resolution. Random Forest was used to upscale observations of FLUXNET 2015 to the globe.
Greenhouse Gas Inventory
National GHGs Inventory Report of JAPAN (NIR), Greenhouse Gas Inventories submitted to UNFCCC by Government of Japan. These data are based on the greenhouse gas inventory submitted from Japanese Government to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Balance Data with 1 km Grid Resolution
We provide an overview of the current regional patterns of carbon balance by terrestrial ecosystems as map image data. The data are obtained by integrating ground-based and satellite observation data with model simulation, and can be downloaded from this web site.
Carbon Sink Information Databases on Kyoto Protocol
Portal site for carbon sinks by forest. This site provide international system database, geospatial information database, international statistics, and international research.
Global Land Cover Maps
The spatial resolution of the global land cover is 30 arc degree in latitude and longitude, and datum of the map is WGS84. This global land cover map is created by integration of existing maps and ground truth data and improved the accuracy by decreasing the classification categories to 6.
Carbon Sink Archives
A system for storing and analyzing geospatial data related to the studies of terrestrial carbon sink (residual terrestrial uptake). The system includes web-based tools for comparative studies of carbon cycle models and serves as a platform for regular evaluation of the state of the art in carbon cycle modelling and for development of consensual knowledge on carbon sequestration rate provided by the global terrestrial vegetation.

The Collection of Data in CGER Report

Report of the International Workshop on Carbon Sinks and the Present State of Research in Forest Sector [CGER Report]
A report of an international workshop "Research trend on scientific estimation about carbon sink function of terrestrial ecosystem" which was held in August, 2001, in Tokyo Japan. Japanese only.
CGER Report, ISSN1341-4356, CGER-D030-2001
Bonn Agreement and Its Political Implication [CGER Report]
A report which summarizes negotiation processes, political implications, problems, and future prospects of carbon sink related issues in Bonn Agreement. This agreement determined the framework of operational procedures of Kyoto Protocol. Japanese only.
CGER Report, ISSN1341-4356, CGER-D029-2001
Institutional Dimension of Global Environmental Change, Carbon Management Research Activity [CGER Report]
A publication which summarizes a initial planning meeting of the Carbon Management Research Activity (CMRA) hosted by Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC), held on May 29-30, 2000, in Tokyo, Japan.
CGER Report, ISSN1341-4356, CGER-D028-2001
International trend in Carbon Sink Projecs on Kyoto Protocol [CGER Report]
A publication which includes the basic understanding on carbon sink projects, and international trend/discussion and activities of major organizations related to "Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation" in forestery and land use. Japanese only.
CGER Report, ISSN1341-4356, CGER-D027-2000