Information on Vitamin D Synthesis / Erythemal UV

Japanese

Remarks

Notes

  1. This website shows the times for appropriate exposure for vitamin D production and the time to reach MED (Minimal Erythema Dose) which is the standard value for producing sunburn. These times have been constructed through the newest and the most reliable scientific products. The logics of the site are based mainly on the paper "Determining an effective UV radiation exposure time for vitamin D synthesis in the skin without risk to health: Simplified estimations from UV observations" (to be published).
  2. The recommended dietary intake of vitamin D for Japanese people older than 18 years is 5.5 µg per day. If the total daily requirement of vitamin D for Japanese people is 15 µg, the remaining ~10 µg is to be obtained from UV outdoors. The website explains the times necessary to obtain 10 µg and to reach MED.
  3. Calculations are performed for an effective exposure area of 600 cm2, which corresponds to the human face and the backs of both hands, as well as a larger area of 1200 cm2 corresponding to the shoulders and parts of the arms or legs. It is preferable to expose a larger area in order to obtain more vitamin D and lessen the demerits of UV.
  4. The results are described for people with SPT (Skin Photo Type) III. People with other than SPT III, such as SPT II or IV, are able to convert the times to reach MED and to produce 10 µg, vitamin D by the correction factors shown in the Table "Skin Type".

References

  1. Miyauchi M.and H. Nakajima (2016) Determining an effective UV radiation exposure time for vitamin D synthesis in the skin without risk to health: Simplified estimations from UV observations. Photochem. Photobiol. 92(6), 863-869 (DOI: 10.1111/php.12651).
  2. WHO, WMO, UNEP, and ICNIRP. Global Solar UV INDEX - A Practical Guide: www.unep.org/pdf/Solar_Index_Guide.pdf Accessed on 8 Aug. 2015.
  3. ICNIRP. ICNIRP (2010) Statement; on protection of workers against ultraviolet radiation. Health Phys. 99(1), 66-87.
  4. WMO, GAW. 1997. Repot of the WMO-WHO meeting of experts on standardization of UV Indices and their dissemination to the public (Les Diablerets, Switzerland, 21-24 July 1997) No. 127: 129.
  5. UNEP (2014) Environmental effects of Ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2014 assessment.
  6. Holick, M. F. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 3, 266 - 281.
  7. Vieth, R. (1999) Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 842 - 856.
  8. Himeno, M., N. Tsugawa , A. Kuwabara, M. Fujii, N. Kawai, Y. Kato, N. Kihara, T. Toyoda, M. Kishimoto, Y. Ogawa, S. Kido, T. Noike, T. Okano and K. Tanaka (2009) Effect of vitamin D supplementation in the institutionalized elderly. J. Bone Miner. Metab. 27, 733-737.
  9. Holick, M. F. (1995) Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(suppl), 638S-645S.
  10. Yoshizawa, J., Y. Abe, N. Oiso, K. Fukai, Y. Hozumi T. Nakamura, T. Narita, T. Motokawa, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, A. Kawada, G. Tamiya and T. Suzuki (2014) Variants in Meranogenesis-related genes associate with skin cancer risk among Japanese populations. J. Dermatol. 41, 296-302.
  11. Holick, M. F. (2004) Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, typeⅠdiabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. clin. Nutr. 79, 362-371.
  12. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Dietary reference intakes for Japanese: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-10900000-Kenkoukyoku/Overview.pdf . Accessed on 8 Aug. 2015.
  13. Yorifuji, J., T. Yorifuji, K. Tachibana, S. Nagai, M. Kawai, T. Momoi, H. Nagasaka, H. Hatayama and T. Nakahata (2008) Craniotabes in normal newborns: The earliest sign of subclinical vitamin D deficiency. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93, 784-1788.
  14. Fitzpatrick TB,1988. The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skintype I through VI. Arch Dermatol 124: 869-871.
  15. Webb, A. N. and O. Engelsen (2006) Calculated ultraviolet exposure levels for a healthy vitamin D status. Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1697-1703.
  16. McKenzie, R. L., J. B. Liley and L. O. Björn (2009) UV Radiation: Balancing risks and benefits. Photochem. Photobiol. 85, 88-98.
  17. Miyauchi, M., C. Hirai and H. Nakajima (2013) The solar exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 58, 257 – 263.
  18. Gueymard, C (1995) SMARTS2, A simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine: Algorithms and performance assessment. Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, pp 78.
  19. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage. 2011. Recommendations on minimum levels of solar UV exposure: Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage. Technical report CIE 201: 2011
  20. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (2006) Action spectrum for the production of previtamin D3 in human skin. Vienna: Technical report CIE 174: 2006.
  21. Duplessis CA, Harris EB, Watenpaugh DE, Horn WG. 2005. Vitamin D supplementation in underway submariners. Aviat Space Environ Med 76: 569-575.
  22. MacLaughlin, J. A., R. R. Anderson and M. F. Holick (1982) Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of Previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin. Science. 216, 1001- 1003.
  23. Davie, M. W. J., D. M. E. Lawson, C. Emberson, J. L. C. Barnes, G. E. Roberts and N. D. Barnes (1982) Vitamin D from skin: contribution to vitamin D status compared with oral vitamin D in normal and anticonvulsant-treated subjects. Cl. Sci. 63, 461-472.
  24. MacLaughlin, J. and M. F. Holick (1985) Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J. Clin. Invest. 76, 1536-1538.
  25. International Organization for Standardization, Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage. Erythema Reference Action Spectra and Standard Erythema Dose. Geneva, Vienna: International Organization for Standardization, Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage; 1998. Joint Iso/CIE Standard ISO 17166:1999/CIE s007-1998.
  26. Downs, N., A. Parisi, H. Bulter, J. Turner and L. Wainwright (2015) Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Solar Ultraviolet. Photochem. Photobiol. 91, 438-449.
  27. McKenzie, R. L., K. J. Paulin, and M. Kotkamp (1997), Erythemal UV irradiances at Lauder, New Zealand: relationship between horizontal and normal incidence, Photochem. Photobiol. 66(5), 683-689.