Data Set Citation:
When using this data, please cite the data package:
Wilkinson M , Mizunuma T , Nasahara K , Oguma H , Ide R , Tsuchida S , Yamamoto H , Takanashi S , Kang S , Miura T , Menzel A , Menzel A , Schunk C , Kosugi Y , Khoon K , Nagai S , Nagai S , Ichie T , Matsuoka M , Yamasaki E , Pungga R , Fukuzawa K , Ono K , Akitsu T , Maeda T , Motohka T , Kim Y , Busey R , Nakai T , Ikawa H , Nagano H , Suzuki R , Yoshimura M , Yamashita M , Sekikawa S , Son Y , Yoon T , Maximov T , Kononov A , Petrov R , Tei S , Morozumi T , Shakhmatov R , Sugimoto A , Takeshi O , Saitoh T , Yoshitake S , Muraoka H , Nakaji T , Takagi K , Yoshida T , Sakai R , Mamiya W , Kajiwara K , and Honda Y.
8 million phenological and sky images from 29 ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics: the Phenological Eyes Network
ERDP-2018-05.1.3 (http://db.cger.nies.go.jp/JaLTER/metacat/metacat/ERDP-2018-05.1.3/jalter-en)
General Information:
Title:8 million phenological and sky images from 29 ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics: the Phenological Eyes Network
Identifier:ERDP-2018-05.1.3
Abstract:
We report long-term continuous phenological and sky images taken by time-lapse cameras through the Phenological Eyes Network (http://www.pheno-eye.org) in various ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics. Phenological images are useful in recording the year-to-year variability in the timing of flowering, leaf-flush, leaf-coloring, and leaf-fall and detecting the characteristics of phenological patterns and timing sensitivity among species and ecosystems. They can also help interpret variations in carbon, water, and heat cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, and be used to obtain ground-truth data for the validation of satellite-observed products. Sky images are useful in continuously recording atmospheric conditions and obtaining ground-truth data for the validation of cloud contamination and atmospheric noise present in satellite remote-sensing data. We have taken sky, forest canopy, forest floor, and shoot images of a range of tree species and landscapes, using time-lapse cameras installed on forest floors, towers, and rooftops. In total, 84 time-lapse cameras at 29 sites have taken 8 million images since 1999. Our images provide (1) long-term, continuous detailed records of plant phenology that are more quantitative than in situ visual phenological observations of index trees; (2) basic information to explain the responsiveness, vulnerability, and resilience of ecosystem canopies and their functions and services to changes in climate; and (3) ground-truthing for the validation of satellite remote-sensing observations.
Keywords:
  • Boreal forest
  • Decadal data set
  • Digital camera
  • Grassland
  • Ground-truth
  • Phenological Eyes Network
  • Plant phenology
  • Sky image
  • Temperate forest
  • Tropical forest
Data Table, Image, and Other Data Details:
Metadata download: Ecological Metadata Language (EML) File
Other Data:dc_YEAR_DOY_TIMEUTC_SITE__CAMERA±EXPOSURE.jpg ( View Metadata | Download File download)

Involved Parties

Data Set Owners:
Individual: M. Wilkinson
Organization:Centre for Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge
Address:
Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH UK
Email Address:
Matthew.Wilkinson@forestry.gsi.gov.uk
Individual: T. Mizunuma
Organization:Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science
Address:
4-1-1 Amakubo,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 Japan
Individual: K.N. Nasahara
Organization:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Address:
1-1-1 Tennodai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 Japan
Email Address:
24dakenlo@gmail.com
Individual: H. Oguma
Organization:National Institute for Environmental Studies
Address:
16-2 Onogawa,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
Individual: R. Ide
Organization:National Institute for Environmental Studies
Address:
16-2 Onogawa,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
Email Address:
Ide.reiko@nies.go.jp
Individual: S. Tsuchida
Organization:Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Address:
Tsukuba Central 7 Higashi 1-1-1,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 Japan
Individual: H. Yamamoto
Organization:Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Address:
Tsukuba Central 7 Higashi 1-1-1,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 Japan
Individual: S. Takanashi
Organization:Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
Address:
68 Nagaikyutaroh Momoyama Fushimi,
Kyoto, 612-0855 Japan
Email Address:
tnsatoru@ffpri.affrc.go.jp
Individual: S. Kang
Organization:Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University
Address:
Chunchon, 200-701 Korea
Email Address:
kangsk@kangwon.ac.kr
Individual: T. Miura
Organization:Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Address:
Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Email Address:
tomoakim@hawaii.edu
Individual: A. Menzel
Organization:Technische Universität München
Address:
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz Platz 2,
Freising, 85354 Germany
Email Address:
amenzel@wzw.tum.de
Individual: A. Menzel
Organization:Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München
Address:
Lichtenbergstraße 2a,
Garching, 85748 Germany
Email Address:
amenzel@wzw.tum.de
Individual: C. Schunk
Organization:Technische Universität München
Address:
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz Platz 2,
Freising, 85354 Germany
Email Address:
schunk@wzw.tum.de
Individual: Y. Kosugi
Organization:Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
Address:
Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho Sakyo-ku,
Kyoto, 602-8502 Japan
Email Address:
ykosugi@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Individual: K.L. Khoon
Organization:Tropical Peat Research Institute, Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Address:
No.6 Persiaran Institusi,
Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor 43000 Malaysia
Email Address:
lip.khoon@mpob.gov.my
Individual: S. Nagai
Organization:Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
Address:
3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 Japan
Email Address:
nagais@jamstec.go.jp
Individual: S. Nagai
Organization:Institute of Arctic Climate and Environment Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
Address:
3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 Japan
Email Address:
nagais@jamstec.go.jp
Individual: T. Ichie
Organization:Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University
Address:
200 Otsu Monobe,
Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502 Japan
Individual: M. Matsuoka
Organization:Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University
Address:
200 Otsu Monobe,
Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502 Japan
Individual: E. Yamasaki
Organization:Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich
Address:
Winterthurertrasse 190,
Zurich, 8057 Switzerland
Individual: R.A.S. Pungga
Organization:Forest Department Sarawak
Address:
Tingkat 14 Wisma Sumber Alam Jalan Stadium Petra Jaya,
Kuching, Sarawak 93050 Malaysia
Individual: K. Fukuzawa
Organization:Nakagawa Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
483 Otoineppu,
Otoineppu, Hokkaido 098-2502 Japan
Email Address:
caribu@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: K. Ono
Organization:Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Address:
3-1-3 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 Japan
Email Address:
onok@affrc.go.jp
Individual: T. Akitsu
Organization:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Address:
1-1-1 Tennodai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 Japan
Individual: T. Maeda
Organization:Environmental Management Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Address:
16-1 Onogawa,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 Japan
Email Address:
takahisa.maeda@aist.go.jp
Individual: T. Motohka
Organization:Earth Observation Research Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
Address:
2-1-1 Sengen,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 Japan
Individual: Y. Kim
Organization:International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Address:
930 Koyukuk Dr. PO Box 757320,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320 USA
Individual: R.C. Busey
Organization:International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Address:
930 Koyukuk Dr. PO Box 757320,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320 USA
Individual: T. Nakai
Organization:Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University
Address:
Furo-cho Chikusa-ku,
Nagoya, 153-0043 Japan
Individual: H. Ikawa
Organization:Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Address:
3-1-3 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 Japan
Individual: H. Nagano
Organization:International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Address:
930 Koyukuk Dr. PO Box 757320,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320 USA
Individual: R. Suzuki
Organization:Institute of Arctic Climate and Environment Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
Address:
3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 Japan
Individual: M. Yoshimura
Organization:PASCO Corporation, Research and Development Center
Address:
2-8-11 Higashiyama,
Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0043 Japan
Email Address:
gr4m-ysmr@asahi-net.or.jp
Individual: M. Yamashita
Organization:Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Address:
3-8-1 Harumi-cho,
Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8538 Japan
Individual: S. Sekikawa
Organization:Department of Agriculture, Tamagawa University
Address:
6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen,
Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 Japan
Email Address:
sekisei@agr.tamagawa.ac.jp
Individual: Y. Son
Organization:Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University
Address:
145 Anamro,
Seungbukgu, Seoul Korea
Email Address:
yson@korea.ac.kr
Individual: T.K. Yoon
Organization:Division of Environmental Strategy, Korea Environment Institute
Address:
370 Sicheong-daero,
Sejong, 30147 Republic of Korea
Individual: T.C. Maximov
Organization:Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences
Address:
41 Lenin Ave.,
Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 678891 Russia
Individual: A.V. Kononov
Organization:Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences
Address:
41 Lenin Ave.,
Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 678891 Russia
Individual: R.E. Petrov
Organization:Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences
Address:
41 Lenin Ave.,
Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 678891 Russia
Individual: S. Tei
Organization:Arctic Research Center, Hokkaido University
Address:
N21W11 Kita-ku,
Sapporo, 001-0021 Japan
Individual: T. Morozumi
Organization:Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University
Address:
N10W5,
Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 Japan
Individual: R. Shakhmatov
Organization:Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University
Address:
N10W5,
Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 Japan
Individual: A. Sugimoto
Organization:Arctic Research Center, Hokkaido University
Address:
N21W11 Kita-ku,
Sapporo, 001-0021 Japan
Individual: O. Takeshi
Organization:Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University
Address:
Furo-cho Chikusa-ku,
Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan
Individual: T.M. Saitoh
Organization:River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
Address:
1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, 501-1193 Japan
Email Address:
taku@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
Individual: S. Yoshitake
Organization:River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
Address:
1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, 501-1193 Japan
Individual: H. Muraoka
Organization:River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
Address:
1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, 501-1193 Japan
Email Address:
muraoka@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
Individual: T. Nakaji
Organization:Tomakomai Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Takaoka,
Tomakomai, Hokkaido 053-0035 Japan
Email Address:
nakaji@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: K. Takagi
Organization:Teshio Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Toikanbetsu,
Horonobe, Hokkaido 098-2943 Japan
Individual: T. Yoshida
Organization:Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Moshiri,
Horokanai, Hokkaido 074-0741 Japan
Email Address:
yoto@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: R. Sakai
Organization:Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Moshiri,
Horokanai, Hokkaido 074-0741 Japan
Individual: W. Mamiya
Organization:Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Moshiri,
Horokanai, Hokkaido 074-0741 Japan
Individual: K. Kajiwara
Organization:Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University
Address:
1-33 Yayoi-cho Inage-ku,
Chiba, 263-8522 Japan
Email Address:
kkaji@faculty.chiba-u.jp
Individual: Y. Honda
Organization:Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University
Address:
1-33 Yayoi-cho Inage-ku,
Chiba, 263-8522 Japan
Data Set Contacts:
Individual: M. Wilkinson
Organization:Centre for Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge
Address:
Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH UK
Email Address:
Matthew.Wilkinson@forestry.gsi.gov.uk
Individual: K.N. Nasahara
Organization:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Address:
1-1-1 Tennodai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 Japan
Email Address:
24dakenlo@gmail.com
Individual: R. Ide
Organization:National Institute for Environmental Studies
Address:
16-2 Onogawa,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
Email Address:
Ide.reiko@nies.go.jp
Individual: S. Takanashi
Organization:Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
Address:
68 Nagaikyutaroh Momoyama Fushimi,
Kyoto, 612-0855 Japan
Email Address:
tnsatoru@ffpri.affrc.go.jp
Individual: S. Kang
Organization:Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University
Address:
Chunchon, 200-701 Korea
Email Address:
kangsk@kangwon.ac.kr
Individual: T. Miura
Organization:Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Address:
Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Email Address:
tomoakim@hawaii.edu
Individual: A. Menzel
Organization:Technische Universität München
Address:
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz Platz 2,
Freising, 85354 Germany
Email Address:
amenzel@wzw.tum.de
Individual: A. Menzel
Organization:Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München
Address:
Lichtenbergstraße 2a,
Garching, 85748 Germany
Email Address:
amenzel@wzw.tum.de
Individual: C. Schunk
Organization:Technische Universität München
Address:
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz Platz 2,
Freising, 85354 Germany
Email Address:
schunk@wzw.tum.de
Individual: Y. Kosugi
Organization:Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
Address:
Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho Sakyo-ku,
Kyoto, 602-8502 Japan
Email Address:
ykosugi@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Individual: K.L. Khoon
Organization:Tropical Peat Research Institute, Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Address:
No.6 Persiaran Institusi,
Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor 43000 Malaysia
Email Address:
lip.khoon@mpob.gov.my
Individual: S. Nagai
Organization:Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
Address:
3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 Japan
Email Address:
nagais@jamstec.go.jp
Individual: S. Nagai
Organization:Institute of Arctic Climate and Environment Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
Address:
3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 Japan
Email Address:
nagais@jamstec.go.jp
Individual: K. Fukuzawa
Organization:Nakagawa Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
483 Otoineppu,
Otoineppu, Hokkaido 098-2502 Japan
Email Address:
caribu@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: K. Ono
Organization:Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Address:
3-1-3 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 Japan
Email Address:
onok@affrc.go.jp
Individual: T. Akitsu
Organization:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Address:
1-1-1 Tennodai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 Japan
Individual: T. Maeda
Organization:Environmental Management Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Address:
16-1 Onogawa,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 Japan
Email Address:
takahisa.maeda@aist.go.jp
Individual: M. Yoshimura
Organization:PASCO Corporation, Research and Development Center
Address:
2-8-11 Higashiyama,
Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0043 Japan
Email Address:
gr4m-ysmr@asahi-net.or.jp
Individual: S. Sekikawa
Organization:Department of Agriculture, Tamagawa University
Address:
6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen,
Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 Japan
Email Address:
sekisei@agr.tamagawa.ac.jp
Individual: Y. Son
Organization:Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University
Address:
145 Anamro,
Seungbukgu, Seoul Korea
Email Address:
yson@korea.ac.kr
Individual: T.M. Saitoh
Organization:River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
Address:
1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, 501-1193 Japan
Email Address:
taku@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
Individual: H. Muraoka
Organization:River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
Address:
1-1 Yanagido,
Gifu, 501-1193 Japan
Email Address:
muraoka@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
Individual: T. Nakaji
Organization:Tomakomai Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Takaoka,
Tomakomai, Hokkaido 053-0035 Japan
Email Address:
nakaji@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: T. Yoshida
Organization:Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University
Address:
Moshiri,
Horokanai, Hokkaido 074-0741 Japan
Email Address:
yoto@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp
Individual: K. Kajiwara
Organization:Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University
Address:
1-33 Yayoi-cho Inage-ku,
Chiba, 263-8522 Japan
Email Address:
kkaji@faculty.chiba-u.jp

Data Set Characteristics

Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:AHS
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  -0.856389  degrees
East:  -0.856389  degrees
North:  51.154722  degrees
South:  51.154722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:88.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:88.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:EGT
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  99.429722  degrees
East:  99.429722  degrees
North:  16.939722  degrees
South:  16.939722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:105.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:105.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:FHK
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  138.764722  degrees
East:  138.764722  degrees
North:  35.443611  degrees
South:  35.443611  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1106.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1106.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:FJY
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  138.762222  degrees
East:  138.762222  degrees
North:  35.454722  degrees
South:  35.454722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1030.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1030.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:GDK
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  127.149167  degrees
East:  127.149167  degrees
North:  37.748889  degrees
South:  37.748889  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:252.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:252.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:HVT
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  -155.248611  degrees
East:  -155.248611  degrees
North:  19.415278  degrees
South:  19.415278  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1219.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1219.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:KBF
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  11.661111  degrees
East:  11.661111  degrees
North:  48.419444  degrees
South:  48.419444  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:490.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:490.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:KEW
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  135.994444  degrees
East:  135.994444  degrees
North:  34.963611  degrees
South:  34.963611  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:250.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:250.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:LAM
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  113.966111  degrees
East:  113.966111  degrees
North:  4.151944  degrees
South:  4.151944  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:27.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:27.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:LBR
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  114.040556  degrees
East:  114.040556  degrees
North:  4.195556  degrees
South:  4.195556  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:200.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:150.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:MMF
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  142.261667  degrees
East:  142.261667  degrees
North:  44.321944  degrees
South:  44.321944  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:340.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:340.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:MSE
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  140.026944  degrees
East:  140.026944  degrees
North:  36.053889  degrees
South:  36.053889  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:14.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:14.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:MTK
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  140.098611  degrees
East:  140.098611  degrees
North:  36.225833  degrees
South:  36.225833  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:871.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:871.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:PFA
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  -147.4875  degrees
East:  -147.4875  degrees
North:  65.123333  degrees
South:  65.123333  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:210.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:210.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:RHN
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  135.768611  degrees
East:  135.768611  degrees
North:  35.018056  degrees
South:  35.018056  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:47.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:47.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:SGD
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  138.347222  degrees
East:  138.347222  degrees
North:  36.523611  degrees
South:  36.523611  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1320.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1320.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:SHA
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  127.082222  degrees
East:  127.082222  degrees
North:  37.464722  degrees
South:  37.464722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:49.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:49.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:SSP
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  129.619444  degrees
East:  129.619444  degrees
North:  62.254722  degrees
South:  62.254722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:214.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:214.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TFS
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  141.518611  degrees
East:  141.518611  degrees
North:  42.736944  degrees
South:  42.736944  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:140.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:140.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TGF
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  140.095  degrees
East:  140.095  degrees
North:  36.113611  degrees
South:  36.113611  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:29.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:29.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TKC
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  137.370833  degrees
East:  137.370833  degrees
North:  36.139722  degrees
South:  36.139722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:800.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:800.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TKY
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  137.423056  degrees
East:  137.423056  degrees
North:  36.146111  degrees
South:  36.146111  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1420.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1420.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TOC
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  141.565833  degrees
East:  141.565833  degrees
North:  42.709722  degrees
South:  42.709722  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:80.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:80.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TOE
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  141.571389  degrees
East:  141.571389  degrees
North:  42.698889  degrees
South:  42.698889  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:80.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:80.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TOS
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  141.554722  degrees
East:  141.554722  degrees
North:  42.707778  degrees
South:  42.707778  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:80.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:80.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TSE (camera ID: ttp_d)
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  142.107222  degrees
East:  142.107222  degrees
North:  45.055833  degrees
South:  45.055833  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:70.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:70.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:TSE (camera ID: k03_u)
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  142.11  degrees
East:  142.11  degrees
North:  45.050833  degrees
South:  45.050833  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:3.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:3.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:UAK
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  -147.855833  degrees
East:  -147.855833  degrees
North:  64.866111  degrees
South:  64.866111  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:156.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:156.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:URY
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  142.261111  degrees
East:  142.261111  degrees
North:  44.365  degrees
South:  44.365  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:803.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:803.0  meter
Geographic Region:
Geographic Description:YGT
Bounding Coordinates:
West:  138.331944  degrees
East:  138.331944  degrees
North:  35.904167  degrees
South:  35.904167  degrees
Mimimum Altitude:1240.0  meter
Maximum Altitude:1240.0  meter

Sampling, Processing and Quality Control Methods

Step by Step Procedures
Step 1:
Description:

Time-lapse camera system

We used seven types of time-lapse cameras, described below.

Instrument(s): A. ADFC An automatic digital fish-eye camera (ADFC) is the main time-lapse camera system of PEN. This system consists of a digital camera (CoolPix 3400 or 4500, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) and fish-eye lens (FC-E8, Nikon). It was installed at 25 sites (except EGT, LAM, TOE, and TOS; Table 4). An ADFC was installed in a waterproof box with control cables and a circuit board (SPC31A, Hayasaka Rikoh Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Japan). A PC running Linux or Windows controlled the ADFC. Shooting period and frequency were set to different values among ADFCs (Table 6). At KBF, KEW, LBR, and SHA, where it was not possible to use PCs, we used remote release cords (MC-EU1, Nikon, Japan; Table 4). Some ADFCs had a standard lens instead of a fish-eye lens (Table 4). Images were saved to the PEN database in JPEG format at 2272 × 1704 pixels. Exposure was set to automatic except at FJY (h01_u, l01_u, n01_u, h28_d, l28_d, n28_d), SGD (g00_u), TKC (f02_u), and TKY (f02_d, f02_u, L12_u, miz_u, y02_d, and y02_u) (Table 6). White balance was set to different values among ADFCs (see EXIF data of each image). As for the effect of different setting of white balance for analysis of red, green and blue digital numbers extracted from digital images, see Nagai et al. (2013a). B. AIST Pheno-mon This system consists of a main camera (EOS Kiss X4 digital SLR, Canon, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with a standard zoom lens (EF-S18–55 mm, f/3.5–5.6 IS, Canon), a supplemental USB camera), and a PC running Linux that controlled the cameras. It was installed at MSE and TGF (Table 4). Images were taken every 30 min during daytime (Table 6). The settings of the main camera were “Program” for exposure, “Auto” for white balance, and 18 mm for focal length (equivalent to 28 mm on 35-mm camera). Images were saved in JPEG format at 5184 × 3456 pixels. C. Canon EOS This system consists of a digital SLR camera (EOS Kiss X3, Canon) and an automated shutter timer unit (Garage Shop, Nara, Japan). It was installed at TOE and TOS (Table 4). Images were taken once a day at 11:40 local time (Table 6). Images were saved in JPEG format at 4752 × 3168 pixels. Exposure was set to automatic at f/11. White balance was set to daylight mode. D. Minolta This system consists of a film camera (Minolta Alpha 707si, Konika Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) with a semi-fisheye lens, driven by an internal battery. It was installed at EGT (Table 4). Using the internal timer, it operated once a day at approximately noon local time. Exposure was set to automatic. The 35-mm negative film was scanned and digitized, and images were saved in JPEG format at 939 × 680 pixels. E. Nikon D3300 This system consists of a digital SLR camera (D3300, Nikon) and an automated shutter timer unit (E-6317 N3, Etsumi). It was installed at KEW from 2016. Images were taken at 1 hour or 3 hour interval. Images were saved in JPEG format at 6000 × 4000 pixels. Exposure was set to automatic at f/5.6. White balance was set to daylight. F. Raspberry Pi This system consists of a Raspberry Pi model B+ (Raspberry Pi Foundation, UK; https://www.raspberrypi.org/), a hand-held computer about the size of a credit card, with an added camera module (Raspberry Pi Camera V2). It was installed at LAM, PFA, and TKY (Table 4). Under the control of the “crontab” command, the “raspistill” command took images at times and intervals specific to each device (Table 6). Images were saved in JPEG format at 2592 × 1944 pixels. Exposure was set to automatic. White balance was set to different values among devices (see EXIF data of each image). G. TLC200 The TLC200 is a time-lapse digital camera that runs on AA batteries (Brinno, USA; http://brinno.com/time-lapse-camera/TLC200). This system was installed at KEW and MMF. Images were taken every 1 h (Table 4). Images were saved in AVI format (frame-by-frame recording) at 1280 × 720 pixels. Exposure and white balance settings are not available in this system. We extracted still images in the free AVI2JPG v. 6.10 video editing software.
Step 2:
Description:

Tasks of contributors

The administrative tasks and managers are: Basic design of measurement system S. Tsuchida[1], K.N. Nasahara[2] (ADFC), T. Maeda[3] (AIST Pheno-mon) Developers of monitoring equipment S. Tsuchida[1], K.N. Nasahara[2], K. Iwao[1], A. Iwasaki[4], H. Oguma[5] (ADFC), T. Maeda[3] (AIST Pheno-mon) Managers of original PEN data server T. Akitsu[2], K.N. Nasahara[2] Managers of monitoring equipment T. Akitsu[3], K.N. Nasahara[3], S. Nagai[6] [1] Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 7, Higashi 1-1-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan [2] Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan [3] National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan [4] Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan [5] National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan [6] Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan

Data Set Usage Rights

This data set is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC-BY 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Access Control:
Auth System:JaLTER
Order:allowFirst
Allow: [read] public
Metadata download: Ecological Metadata Language (EML) File